(c) France Abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic

Before the revolution, the French people were divided into 3 groups: the 1st estate consisted of the clergy, the second estate of the nobility and the third estate of the bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants. Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation.

(b) The Outbreak of the Revolution

Following were the social, economic, political and intellectual causes of the French Revolution: Social – The social conditions in France in late 18th century were extremely unequal and exploitative. The clergy and the nobility formed the first two Estates and were the most privileged classes in the French society